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Newton Jaravani congratulating Bro. Joseph F. Excerpts from sermon: Hunger and thirst are natural needs on human beings. When we had our first born, he was always restless when hungry, but the mother was always prepared ahead of time to supply food. But that was only physical. Psalm Like the hart, God wants us to draw near to take the living waters. That is exactly why we come to this camp meeting. It should not be an occasional exercise. God wants us to be hungry continuously. If there is a little hunger in you, God will satisfy you.

Joseph Jegede delivering the first sermon. Samuel Jegede, the Youth leader, delivering the first Youth service sermon. Newton Jaravani Testimonies: I was born in the gospel but that didn t save my soul, until one day when I decided to seek for salvation. God saved my soul God delivered me from social media addiction that enslaved and pulled me into sin.

Gen , I John , Psalm We were all born sinners. A little child is a little sinner and as they grow, they grow with sin. Jaravani delivering the first revival sermon It may start with a little lie. There s no little sin That little sin will lead to hell fire. However, the good news is that Jesus brought deliverance.

The gospel is powerful. When you are saved, you have the power to go and sin no more. Gospel Workers manual was discussed and the senior ministers made inspiring contributions. Cross section of workers during the seminar. Our musicians are not entertainers but gospel workers who preach the Gospel through music renditions. Camp meeting concert is a legacy that has been practiced through the gospel history. We thank God for the unity exemplified in the gospel. The Music department is no exception as the choir and orchestra members across the Southern African district are always ready to join the Namibian choir members during the annual camp meeting.

Concert Preparation: The amazing thing about the camp meeting concert was the brevity of preparation and practice time. Choir members outside Namibia had only three days to practice with their Namibian counterparts. This portrayed the spirit of oneness and dedication. During the intermission, the congregation was led in songs after which the elementary class presented a short program.

At the close of the concert, one of the guests, Dr. Alexander Alagba was asked to give the vote of thanks. He expressed his delight about the performance.

He also remembered the last time he watched such a classical music performance in Lagos, Nigeria. He expressed his delight in watching such performance in Ondangwa. Alexander Alagba giving the vote of thanks. He enjoined the leadership of the church to make a plan to extend such classical music performance to the general public at a public utility facility where more people could have the opportunity of listening to the gospel message in music. The last item on the program was the popular Hallelujah Chorus by G. The congregation rose up to the King of Kings during the rendition.

Zac Oyedokun. We need Jesus because of our past, present and the future. The audience went down on their knees to seek Jesus in earnest. Zac Oyedokun John It is our hearts desire to hear the great salutation: welcome, well-done. Matthew Everyone is working for a reward. Who is your employer?

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There are natural rewards and these are proportional to how much work you are able to do. There are also supernatural rewards and they are proportional to favour and grace: rewards that outweigh your efforts. There are important questions to ask yourself: Who am I working for, and what is my reward?

Are my rewards natural or supernatural? Luke Rev. Zac Oyedokun conducting If you are not working for God, automatically you will be working for the devil. When you were born, you were automatically under the devil s payroll. When you align yourself with God s covenant, goodness and mercy will follow you. At salvation, you get your employment letter to work for God.

Appetizers: joy in the Holy Ghost, victory over circumstances, good health and many more. What should be the attitude of a good worker? Focus on the supernatural reward, be a cheerful giver, obedient follower and a humble leader. The choice is yours. Come to the altar. Zac Oyedokun and the interpreter. Newton Jaravani Testimonies: Bro. Israel Awotunde conducting God saved me when I was a young man. Before I got saved, I was religious and was ringing the church s bell to announce time for church s services.

While doing this, I was dating the pastor s daughter. But after Jesus saved my soul, I broke up with her.

When did grace start, with Jesus? |

God put a deeper hunger in me and I prayed through to the other Christian experiences. Joseph Jegede testifying. Why do we need to be sanctified? Leviticus This is a requirement for every on who wants to make heaven. After we have been forgiven, we need to be cleansed from this sin.

After sanctification, we have a peace that surpasses understanding. Psychologists cannot explain this transformation. I Peter , John , this was Jesus praying for us, who want to work the works of God. Ephesians God wants a church without spot, wrinkle or blemish. Holiness is possible. John Jesus expects us to do more than others are doing because we have been born twice. We have Jesus royal blood in us. When we claim we are saved and sanctified, are we really different to others? Matthew The righteousness is a gift from God.

It must exceed that of the Pharisees. If you discovered that there is no change after you claim to be saved and sanctified, go back and do the first work. What do ye more than others? This is a question we must answer. They have been empowered to do more than others. II Peter At sanctification, we have the divine nature Of God. Sanctified people can forebear and forgive anything because God forgave them all. The grace of God makes life easy. Philippians God expects us to do things without murmuring and disputing. If you are not saved or sanctified, today is another day for you.

Come and answer this question today. Newton Jaravani and the interpreter. The blind Bartemaeus got Jesus attention. He believed on Jesus. Tonight, just call on Jesus attention. Jesus did it for me:. Evans Mhlanga Excerpts: John While we are still alive, there are two things that await us- Rapture or death. In our lifetime, we have to prepare for either of these events.

Luke Noah was told to prepare an Ark. It was business as usual in his days, while he was building the ark. Judgement is due to be executed, but thank God, God will not destroy the righteous with the wicked. Evans Mhlanga The coming of the Lord would be preceded by the falling away.

Sin would become fashionable. Today, preaching against sin is not popular. Preparation goes beyond church membership. Don t think you will resurrect if your life is not hid with Christ. How do you feel when you remember that Jesus is coming? As sure as the rising of the sun is, Jesus is coming. Come and prepare. Testimonies: When I came to the gospel, God saved my soul.

One day, our car was stolen. We prayed and after four days, it was found at Mozambique boarder.

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God directed the police to an unusual road and it was discovered there. Helena Tomas Testimonies: Jesus saved me when I was in grade school. I was involved in a plane crash but Jesus gave me a second chance. God provided a place of worship for us in Windhoek this year. Helena Tomas with the interpreter. I thank God that Jesus saved my soul. God reached out to me in an unusual way. We had an attack and sustained bullet wounds. Christians came to us and prayed for us.

God healed us all. I never thought God could heal gunshot wound. I intended to take revenge, but in the process of that, God saved my soul.

Assurance of Salvation: Its Nature - A. W. Pink / Studies in the Scriptures / Christian Audio Books

I visited the person responsible for the attack in prison. I was a man of many women but since Jesus saved my soul, I have only one woman- my wife. Newton Jaravani testifying Rev. Zac Oyedokun testifying. Joseph Jegede Rev. Joseph Jegede and the interpreter. Excerpts: The Baptism of the Holy Ghost prepares us for heaven. Ephesians 10 Finally, my brethren, be strong in the Lord, and in the power of his might. The Power of the Holy Ghost enables us to stand against principalities. Our fight is a spiritual battle. We are very much concerned here about the three basic Christian experiences, it is the way to victory.

When we listen to your testimonies, we want to hear that you prayed through to salvation, sanctification and the baptism of the Holy Ghost. Lulu Gaogane playing trombone It is the way to victory. Put on the whole armour. Acts This was a commandment to the disciples. Then unto the uttermost part of the world That includes us today.

We need the power. What is the benefit of a wellbuilt car with a beautiful brand without power? It is of no use, but let there be an engine, petrol and other necessary things, then fire it, and it moves. Coming to the Apostolic Faith is good but without the power of the Holy Ghost, you will not be active. Ordinance: Water Baptism, The Lord s supper and washing of the saints feet.

Afternoon: Water baptism was conducted in the afternoon for those who were saved during the camp meeting and those who have been saved previously but have not had the opportunity to be baptised. Six people were baptised. A candidate during water baptism Evening: After the evening and evangelistic service, the saints gathered to observe the Lord s Supper and washing of the saints feet.

It was a wonderful time altogether. Seyi Olowoniwa teaching the Sunday school. Evans Mhlanga teaching the junior class. Zac Oyedokun Rev. Zac Oyedokun preaching John Jesus Christ is a Captain that has never lost a battle. He will take care of you. If you are not saved, you can see what you are missing. You are the light of the world Light cannot shine without the oil. You are the salt don t allow your salt to lose its savour. Your association with sinners will cause a chemical reaction that will make your salt to lose its savour and remove you from God.

II Corinthians Read the riot act to the devil. Tell him you are a new creature. This list should not intimidate you. Your number one enemy is the devil, and he has many agents. If you are not afraid of the master: the devil, you can order his agents to depart from you. We are not ignorant of his devises There are five devises that Satan uses 1. Your mind: He that controls your mind controls you. That is why it is good to renew your mind with the Word of God. Deception: The devil must deceive you before he can defeat you. Intimidation: The devil roars like a lion. Actually, he is not the lion.

Jesus is the Lion of Judah. Laziness: Laziness allows you to fall easily. An idle hand is a devil s workshop 5. Success: Are you surprised? Success destroys people more than poverty. If your riches increase, don t set your mind on them Ephesians 10 Finally, my brethren, be strong in the Lord, and in the power of his might. It is you who must do the standing. Use what God has given you. Prepare for war to have peace. It is not when war comes that you will rush to pray. David was fully dressed before the battle.

You shall know the truth and the truth shall set you free Have you believed unto salvation? Not emotions. For you to survive, you need the truth. What are you doing for God? Do you want your life to be beautiful? How beautiful are the feet of them that bring good tidings. You need to pull the trigger, and God will release the blessings. Wait on God. It is easy for the devil to kick somebody who is in a hurry. God is not unrighteous to forget your labour of love. Many souls received various blessings as workers joined them to intercede.

We thank God that He has never failed to answer any sincere seeker that fully surrendered to Him. God blessed the seekers in the old time way. Seekers during altar service The benediction Marriage seminar: The ministry is concerned about the well being of the members and one crucial area is the home.

A marriage seminar was conducted on Wednesday, 3 May During the seminar, young people were reminded of the basic needs required before going into marriage. These needs include spiritual, financial and resources. Questions and answers session was allowed to respond to various queries. Evangelistic outreach: Throughout the camp meeting, a group of inspired and dedicated workers regularly go out for outreach evangelism to convey the gospel good news and plead earnestly with people to come and partake of the camp meeting blessings. The same God who granted journey mercies to campers while coming proved Himself strong and mighty again.

We received news of victory that God granted all camp meeting delegates safe journey back to their various destinations. With great reluctance and acting under severe constraint, we withdraw acceptance of GALZ's participation. Zimbabwe's president, Robert Mugabe, opened the book fair on August 1. The censorship had already drawn outrage from some prominent participants.

Nonetheless, Mugabe made it the major theme of his speech. He painted homosexuals as people who flaunted their sexual conduct shamelessly; he effectively identified the book fair stand as a public sexual act. Freedom, however, is not a selfish, one way street….. The greater the freedom one enjoys, the greater the responsibility one owes the community which bestows that freedom….

Let me give an obvious example of a taboo here, but one which is universally recognized. While, between a married couple, sexual relations are not only permissible but expected, such relations should, however, never be seen to occur in public, for example in streets or public parks. No married couple could be heard to argue that because they have a legal right to practice sex, they can do so anywhere.

This is because we all accept that the intimate nature of such relations demands privacy. Supposing those persons who believe that the denial of their alleged rights to have sex in public is a violation of their human rights formed an association in defence and protection of it and proceeded to write booklets and other forms of literature on the subject of their rights. Is any sane government which is a protector of society's moral values expected to countenance their accessions? I find it extremely outrageous and repugnant to my human conscience that such immoral and repulsive organisations, like those of homosexuals who offend both against the law of nature and the morals of religious beliefs espoused by our society, should have any advocates in our midst and even elsewhere in the world.

If we accept homosexuality as a right, as is being argued by the association of sodomists and sexual perverts, what moral fibre shall our society ever have to deny organised drug addicts, or even those given to bestiality, the rights they might claim and allege they possess under the rubric of individual freedom and human rights, including the freedom of the Press to write, publish and publicise their literature on them? Official homophobia was not new in Zimbabwe. Arrests had long happened, and GALZ members' apartments had been raided in recent years.

Indeed, the state-sponsored press had, throughout and , carried an increasing number of sensational articles about homosexuals; in one, the minister of home affairs stated, "We are going to arrest them. It is illegal in this country. Mugabe, first elected in when Zimbabwe held its first all-race elections, was facing growing opposition by the late s. To deflect criticism, he turned to the issue of land redistribution. Homosexuality, which the president had discovered galvanized press and public alike, became an additional tool for discrediting Zimbabwe's whites.

GALZ at the time was still a largely white organization, itself significantly hampered by internal racism. It became almost exclusively black in the following years, partly as a result of Mugabe's vilification-as gays and lesbians from high-density areas sought out the organization for support amid mounting community and family pressures, and as many whites left in fear of a government crackdown.

In a stream of pronouncements Mugabe returned obsessively to the question of "homosexuals," "sodomists," and "perverts. It's unnatural and there is no question ever of allowing these people to behave worse than dogs and pigs. If you see people parading themselves as lesbians and gays, arrest them and hand them over to the police. Let them be gay in the US, Europe and elsewhere…. They shall be sad people here. Several notes Mugabe struck would be repeated again and again, by his supporters and by other politicians, in Zimbabwe and elsewhere.

There was the notion that rights have limits, that some people by definition cannot enjoy them-that the idea of a common human dignity is incompatible with preserving national or local particularity. If humanity could not be universal, though, the nation must be uniform: there was the question of cultural authenticity, the defense of an apparently cohesive and consensus-founded identity, either country- or continent-wide, against external invasion or internal differentiation.

And there was the very question of terminology: who exactly were the enemies Mugabe combatted? Were they "gays and lesbians"; "homosexuals"; or, more archaically, "sodomists" or even practitioners of bestiality? One Zimbabwean parliamentarian resorted to a-seemingly non-standard-dictionary in a subsequent debate:. I looked up a number of authorities and the sum total of all these definitions is this one. These homosexuals are people given to social pleasures.

This is one definition. The second definition says these are people given to inordinate pleasure. The third definition describes them as licentious and this means morally rotten and promiscuous. The fourth definition describes them as lecherous, this means lewd, unchaste, base, and given to debauchery…. What is at issue in cultural terms is a conflict of interest between the whole body, which is the Zimbabwean community and part of that body represented by individuals or groups of individuals. When your finger starts festering and becomes a danger to the body you cut it off.

Controversies over GALZ's participation threatened to become a regular feature of the book fair. In , GALZ again applied for a stand. The fair trustees promised to resist government pressure; the government promised not to apply it. A week before the fair began, however, the Ministry of Information announced a government order barring GALZ from appearing-"to protect and guarantee the cultural health of the country from possible erosion.

GALZ therefore continued to plan on participating. However-anticipating how the Mugabe regime would deal with other political opponents in future-shadowy threats of mob action surfaced. A leader of a "student group" was quoted in the government press as saying,.

We are ready to raze down the stands and go to jail. Our actions will be for a noble cause. We want to protect the values of our culture. The essence of the fair should be exhibiting what the country has achieved and can offer in literal arts, and absolutely not homosexuality. At a preliminary conference on national book policy, noisy demonstrators protested the book fair's trustees.

The book fair trustees stated they would comply. However, GALZ rapidly sued the government, saying it was standing up "not just for gay rights but for the holistic principle of freedom of speech, which applies to all individuals and communities in this country. The judge held that the government could not censor material without examining it first. Now it took over its stand at the fair.

The Public Prosecutor stated that he and his followers represented "the People's Court" and that they "did not care about High Court Rulings. GALZ left its stand symbolically empty until the last day of the fair, when they took up a position at the margins of the exhibition ground-so as to be able to escape if violence recurred. It did: at mid-day, reports came that a mob was approaching the fair.

GALZ members left; a small book burning followed. When, in , a Zimbabwean politician launched a campaign to have homosexuals whipped and castrated, a leader of the Catholic Commission for Justice and Peace, a human rights group, spoke out against him. In , GALZ joined the "Sixteen Days of Activism" campaign, a coalition of organizations drawing attention to rights violations against women. The state-controlled Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation withdrew prime-time radio and T.

Many of Zimbabwe's churches joined in denouncing homosexuals. In , campaigning for re-election-and for the votes of church members-Mugabe had specifically appealed to pastors to stand with him in condemning homosexuality. In , the eighth general assembly of the World Council of Churches WCC was due to be held in Harare, a much-anticipated publicity opportunity for the regime. The assembly would include a "Padare" or public space for discussions and exhibitions by accredited groups and NGOs. GALZ applied to participate. Even two years before the assembly began, however, local churches made it clear they would oppose GALZ's presence.

At a press conference announcing the upcoming assembly, Anglican Bishop Jonathan Siyachitema, president of the Zimbabwe Council of Churches ZCC -the hosting organization-used the occasion to denounce homosexuality: "We are not going to allow, as a Christian body, gays in our council and destroy that which we cherish: our culture," he said.

Not all church members agreed. The press whipped up outrage. One writer declared, "Christianity the world over has been slowly accepting such evils like homosexuals in their denominations because Christian denominations are dividing themselves endlessly…. We expected their representatives to stand for justice, that is to represent the views of the majority of this country.

But for them to want to propagate their 'faith' at conferences is stretching people's patience a bit too far. The WCC itself faced internal rifts on the issue of homosexuality. Some members, particularly in Europe and the United States, pressed for an open discussion of sexual diversity; many of these wished to move the assembly to another country, in response to Mugabe's rhetoric and human rights record. Other member churches, particularly Eastern Orthodox ones, were determined to exclude homosexuality from the assembly's agenda, threatening a boycott if the debate took place.

To participate, it needed the support of a bona fide church. The organization was finally denied accreditation, though it was able to bring some members into the Padare under the auspices of a sympathetic human rights NGO. In May , for example, the Sunday Mail published a front-page article accusing GALZ of running a brothel from its office, as well as showing pornographic videos.

There, it offered counselling services for people dealing with issues of sexuality and of HIV, along with a resource library and a social gathering-place. The reporter, who claimed to have inside knowledge of GALZ's dealings, said the organization provided sex to foreigners, noting that "After one party I saw some tourists leaving the centre, accompanied by more than one teenager. GALZ demanded, but never received, a retraction.

Both the Herald and the Sunday Mail continued to amass accusations against the organization. The allegations began at the same time Goddard was arrested on blatantly false charges of "sodomy" described in Chapter III below -and helped build animosity toward him and his work in the public mind. They also came as Canaan Banana, the former president of Zimbabwe and Mugabe's revolutionary comrade-in-arms, faced trial for "sodomy" as well, in a well-publicized scandal. See Appendix, "Before the Law. His concern has moved from the presence of homosexuals within Zimbabwe to visions of external coalitions against the country.

Internationally isolated, he sees constellations of conspiratorial homosexuals opposing him.. These visions have multiplied since, in October , Mugabe was subjected to a citizen's arrest by a British gay activist while shopping in London. Press and government whipped up outrage against Britain: at a Commonwealth meeting, Mugabe accused "gangster gays" of working for the British "gangster regime. Let us fight against the enemy. Prime Minister Tony Blair's government of being controlled by homosexuals. At campaign rallies for the presidential election, Mugabe emphasized that he had "real men" around him.

He called on Tony Blair to "expose" his cabinet, saying, "I have people who are married in my cabinet. He has homosexuals and they make John marry Joseph and let Mary get married to Rosemary…. We can form clubs, but we will never have homosexual clubs. In fact, we will punish them.

In April the head of one of the main mouthpieces of Mugabe's many denunciations, the Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation, Alum Mpofu, was forced to resign. One South African newspaper asserted that Mugabe asked his Central Intelligence Organisation, responsible for state security and the president's protection, to assemble lists of gays in official service. I believe lesbians and gays were indeed always part of our society. There was not tolerance as such; but a spirit that if they only kept to themselves we would not interfere. The problem, you know, is that there is not a culture of human rights in Zimbabwe.

I try to look to the future, to rights that can be interpreted or gained through jurisprudence. I try to say to people, "give us five years! Mugabe's statements drew international condemnation, but also international imitation. In neighboring Namibia Gwen Lister, publisher of the Namibian, the country's main independent press organ, remembers how startled she was when homosexuality became a political question there, in the months after Mugabe exploited it.

Many people were a bit confused at the time: it's years after independence, we've never heard a word about these things, why suddenly is this becoming an issue? If I'm asked the question, I think it's really opportunistic, I think at times it's a question of finding a scapegoat when things go wrong. If there's been a huge scandal of corruption then suddenly they'll shout the odds about gays and lesbians…. It's something that seems to happen in waves.

You'll find right at this time [November ] that the gay and lesbian issue isn't on the national agenda at all. But who's to say that come December when something else happens, it's not suddenly going to be put right in people's faces once again? The first wave started among lower officials-but, as Lister says, "the trend began with the president.

There's absolutely no question about that…. In order to please the president, other figures who are not as high on the political spectrum as he join in by making these noises from time to time. In October , only months after the Harare Book Fair controversy, Namibia's deputy minister for lands, resettlement, and rehabilitation told a reporter that "Homosexuality is like cancer or AIDS and everything should be done to stop its spread in Namibia.

Another wave came in Late that year, Minister of Home Affairs Jerry Ekandjo stated in the National Assembly that he planned to introduce new legislation against homosexual acts. They are wrongly claimed because it is inimical to true Namibian culture, African culture and religion. They should be classified as human wrongs which must rank as sin against society and God. No such legislation was ever introduced.

Two years later, however, the minister returned to the subject. Speaking to a group of newly graduated police officers in October , he urged them to "eliminate" gays and lesbians "from the face of Namibia," saying that the "Constitution does not guarantee rights for gays and lesbians," and that police must take measures to combat all such "unnatural acts, including murder.

Ekandjo answered that "elimination does not only mean to kill. According to the dictionary meaning, elimination may also mean to ignore, put aside, and [get] rid of. Most conspicuously, however, President Nujoma has periodically weighed in in statements closely echoing Mugabe's, with sometimes vague, sometimes ominously specific threats. In December , Nujoma declared that "all necessary steps must be taken to combat influences that are influencing us and our children in a negative way.

Homosexuals must be condemned and rejected in our society. In what observers called an "unprecedented" move, the party issued a statement supporting the president, threatening his opponents, and vowing to "uproot" homosexuality:. It should be noted that most of ardent supporters of this perverts [sic] are Europeans who imagine themselves to be the bulwark of civilization and enlightenment ….

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  6. If there is a matter which must be dealt with utmost urgency, it is the need to revitalise our inherent culture and its moral values which we have identified with foreign immoral values. Promotion of homosexuality in our society scorns many sets of our values…. The moral values of our nation, as defended by the President, incorporate the fundamental principles of nature and should not be equated to the vile practices of homosexuals which has a backlash.

    Nujoma has repeated his threats regularly. The youth should be vigilant and guard against foreigners who claim to know development and democracy better than us…. Where were they when we sacrificed our lives during the liberation struggle? A rapid-fire series of statements from Nujoma came early in the next year. In March , the president told university students that "The Republic of Namibia does not allow homosexuality, lesbianism here. Police are ordered to arrest you, and deport you and imprison you too. He warned homosexuals would be barred from entering Namibia: "If they arrive at the Hosea Kutako Airport, we'll send them back with the same aircraft-if they are couples or found to be homosexuals.

    They are using the constitution to protect homosexuals and lesbians in an irresponsible way. These are all madness and they claim to be Christians…. They colonised us and now they claim human rights when we condemn and reject them. In Namibia there will be no lesbian and homosexual [sic] left. Each nation, each people on earth have their own cultures, way of life. But I detest the way human rights [are] being put that they [homosexuals] should parade in the streets behaving like animals…. God created a man and a woman separately. Now we have women marrying each other and men marrying each other.

    What is this madness? You must remain with your cultures in Europe. Don't bring it to Namibia because we are not going to impose our cultures on you. When the interviewer, a German-born Namibian citizen, asked how such comments corresponded to the constitution, Nujoma grew agitated:. That is a constitution that was made by SWAPO, we are the ones who fought for the liberation of this country for you to talk about a constitution.

    What do you know about [a] constitution? You sided with the enemy here! Keep away from our country, please. Don't repeat those words. They are unacceptable here. If you want us to work with you, respect our laws and respect our rights. Those words you are mentioning are un-Namibian. The government was prepared to punish civil society actors for using the "un-Namibian" words. Little more than a year before the interview quoted above, Nujoma's administration had tried to discredit the country's largest women's rights organization, for including a reference to gay and lesbian rights in an advocacy document.

    Sister Namibia, a feminist NGO, had organized other civil society actors to collaborate on a document called the Namibian Women's Manifesto: the goal was to support and publicize the government's National Gender Policy, turning its generalizations into specific recommendations relevant to everyday life. The twenty-five-page document contained only two references to lesbians-one including them in a list of women to be protected from discrimination; another asking political parties to state their stances on gay and lesbian rights. Five days before the manifesto's release in , the SWAPO Women's Council condemned it, saying that it differed from the state policy in that "they included homosexuality issues in their so-called manifesto….

    They have to find another platform to address homosexuality and not within the context of gender issues. The controversy over the Women's Manifesto pitted the ruling party's women's league against independent feminist organizers from civil society. Sister Namibia is headed by an open lesbian, Elizabeth Khaxas; the accusations of "promoting homosexuality" were in part aimed at her work. Even then, some feminists took this as a message: that respectable women worked within the state and party, while deviants pursued activism outside.

    From the beginning, in , Sister Namibia had criticized official homophobia, stating publicly that "We believe that gays and lesbians should have the same rights as heterosexuals in all spheres of life. We think government has run out of issues, and wants to whip up emotion by talking about gayness. It is behaving ridiculously, like an elephant chasing a squirrel. In , when Nujoma threatened lesbians and gays with arrest and deportation, TRP was able to build a coalition in response.

    The National Society for Human Rights issued press releases and an open letter to the president condemning the threats. TRP called for a march to affirm the freedom and safety of lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transgender people. As word of the march spread, the organizers began hearing of threats, including a statement by SWAPO Youth League that the "march will never take place.

    Still, Ian Swartz, TRP's coordinator, says that fear has impeded the group's efforts to provide counselling and support services to people abused or discriminated against for their sexual orientation or gender identity. According to Swartz, most lesbians and gay men are so frightened of being identified that they will not come to TRP's quarters in Windhoek.

    The group provides almost all their services through a telephone hotline. We've also been attacked for promoting homosexuality because we are critical of the attacks by the president and the minister of home affairs and by the SFF [Special Field Forces]. We are not promoting homosexuality, we are promoting human rights. They are not a threat to the president. But we can't ignore what he's said because it is becoming very dangerous. Men are strong-women are submissive. No other expression of sexuality is permitted. Nujoma knows that most Namibians are intolerant of homosexuality, so he attacks gays and lesbians.

    The government is making attacks on homosexuality a central part of its outlook.

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    But it will not end with homosexuality-it is to create a culture of intolerance-a culture that will grow. Either we change this culture and become more tolerant or it will get worse. Swartz also expressed concern about the culture of intolerance the state promotes. Then it became rhetoric about 'purifying' Namibia, which meant attacks on whites, Afrikaans-speaking Namibians, and then all foreigners and women who marry foreigners.

    Also, just like Mugabe, Nujoma is attacking landowners and the independent media. Ya Nangoloh notes the attacks are often personal. Independent judges have been vilified for deciding against the government: "Individuals have been attacked as traitors, as foreigners, racists, reactionaries, and imperialists. Gwen Lister of the Namibian also observes that the attacks on homosexuals are often "personally directed. You mustn't think that they are talking about a group in general. They know who they mean. For example, Elizabeth Khaxas and her German-born partner, Liz Frank, fought a years-long legal battle to have their relationship recognized for immigration purposes.

    Although they had lived together and raised a son, the Ministry of Home Affairs fought to deny Frank a residency permit, threatening her with deportation. Indeed, in , Home Affairs Minister Ekandjo specifically commented in Parliament on Frank's and Khaxas' case-saying mockingly that he would remain opposed to recognizing their status as a couple "until it is scientifically tested that they can produce a baby.

    It was evidently in part meant to menace Frank and Khaxas. One must look on Namibia as a traumatized place, perhaps a schizophrenic place. There is an unresolved history in this country, a history of authoritarian personality structures. The country has been through trauma, a terrible period of repression and a war. This produces a typical phenomenon of very dependent individual personalities, the result of a long history of colonialism and brutality and fear.

    Such personalities can easily be mobilized against a minority. And sexuality is very much bound up with fear. Then, though, there is a split in public awareness and political awareness. Repression co-exists with liberalism. One part of the government will say it wants to eradicate the enemy. Another part hurries in to say that it wants to give everyone rights. And the fear of the internal enemy is tied to fears of external enemies. Homophobic sentiments are mixed with xenophobic sentiments. It is terrible. And it is depressing. As Gwen Lister had predicted, another "wave" of violent rhetoric may have begun.

    In August President Nujoma again mixed homophobia with fear of the outside. Speaking to the Namibia Public Workers Union Congress, he denounced what he called "British imperialism" and its anti-Mugabe stance: "Today it is Zimbabwe, tomorrow it is Namibia or any other country. We must unite and support Zimbabwe. We cannot allow imperialism to take over our continent again. In Namibia we will not allow these lesbians and gays. We fought the liberation struggle without that. We do not need it in our country.

    We have whites who are Namibian, but they must remember they have no right to force their culture on anyone. If they are lesbian, they can do it at home, but not show it in public… I warn you as workers not to allow homosexuality. Africa will be destroyed. Zambia, in a few months in experienced something akin to the hysterical rhetoric about homosexuality which Mugabe and Nujoma had inflicted on their countries over several years. A newspaper article describing a single, isolated gay man's experiences provoked a vast national controversy. Church leaders, NGO officials, students and professors, and professional politicians all stepped forward to voice their horror of homosexuality.

    The vice-president and ultimately the president of the country joined the condemnations. By the time the furor died down, homosexuals had been driven even more deeply underground, or beyond the country's borders altogether. And human rights organizations, and civil society agents in general, had been stigmatized as being agents of a foreign agenda. In July , a young man named Francis Yabe Chisambisha went to the offices of Zambia's largest independent newspaper, told them he was homosexual, and asked if they would like an interview.

    Reporters leapt at the chance. Chisambisha's self-revelation, his "coming out," was, as he explained to our researcher later, born of wanting not to continue in concealment.